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LNG: for a responsible energy future

What is LNG ?
 

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is simply natural gas which has been reduced to a liquid state by cooling it to minus 162°C. The transformation to a liquid is accompanied by a volume reduction of approximately 600 to one (if the gas is initially around 15°C).

The cleanest burning hydrocarbon, LNG is used in a variety of sectors ranging from power generation, industry, heating and cooling to marine and road transport.

LNG Value Chain 

Once loaded aboard specially designed tankers, LNG is maintained in a liquid state by highly efficient insulation which surrounds the cargo compartment. 

Upon arrival at the receiving facility, LNG is transferred into specially designed storage tanks where it is stored as a liquid at near atmospheric pressure and minus 160°C temperature. The LNG remains in storage until it is demanded for redelivery. At that time it is pumped from the tanks and subjected to both heat and pressure to return it to a gaseous state for transportation by pipeline.

 

The main properties of LNG :
 

- Extremely low temperature – minus 160°C

- LNG will float in water – weight is about 458 kg/m3 - slightly less than half that of water

- Odorless and colorless – LNG looks like boiling water. When exposed to atmospheric temperatures and pressure, it vaporizes to about 600 times its liquid volume.

- LNG is non-toxic

- Vapor Dissipation – As the vapor warms around minus 100°C it becomes lighter than air and will dissipate

The GIIGNL Technical Study Group developed a series of Information Papers to provide public readers with factual information about LNG, its technology and the industry’s multiple layers of safety.

The seven papers in the series are:

- GIIGNL Information Paper N°1 – Basic Properties of LNG

- GIIGNL Information Paper N°2 – The LNG Process Chain

- GIIGNL Information Paper N°3 – LNG Ships

- GIIGNL Information Paper N°4 – Managing LNG Risks – Operational Integrity, Regulations, Codes and Industry Organisations

- GIIGNL Information Paper N°5 – Managing LNG Risks – Containment

GIIGNL Information Paper N°6 – Managing LNG Risks – Industry Safeguard Systems

GIIGNL Information Paper – Questions and Answers (Q&A’s)

 

How is LNG enabling a responsible energy future?