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LNG: for a responsible energy future
What is LNG ?
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is simply natural gas which has been reduced to a liquid state by cooling it to minus 162°C. The transformation to a liquid is accompanied by a volume reduction of approximately 600 to one (if the gas is initially around 15°C).
The cleanest burning hydrocarbon, LNG is used in a variety of sectors ranging from power generation, industry, heating and cooling to marine and road transport.
LNG Value Chain
Once loaded aboard specially designed tankers, LNG is maintained in a liquid state by highly efficient insulation which surrounds the cargo compartment.
Upon arrival at the receiving facility, LNG is transferred into specially designed storage tanks where it is stored as a liquid at near atmospheric pressure and minus 160°C temperature. The LNG remains in storage until it is demanded for redelivery. At that time it is pumped from the tanks and subjected to both heat and pressure to return it to a gaseous state for transportation by pipeline.
The main properties of LNG :
- Extremely low temperature – minus 160°C
- LNG will float in water – weight is about 458 kg/m3 - slightly less than half that of water
- Odorless and colorless – LNG looks like boiling water. When exposed to atmospheric temperatures and pressure, it vaporizes to about 600 times its liquid volume.
- LNG is non-toxic
- Vapor Dissipation – As the vapor warms around minus 100°C it becomes lighter than air and will dissipate
The GIIGNL Technical Study Group developed a series of Information Papers to provide public readers with factual information about LNG, its technology and the industry’s multiple layers of safety.
The seven papers in the series are:
How is LNG enabling a responsible energy future?
- LNG is the cleanest burning hydrocarbon and one of the few energy sources that can be used across all energy sectors
- Natural gas reserves are abundant and accessible, making LNG a reliable energy source
- LNG infrastructure is flexible and reduces the barriers to entry for exporters and importers
- LNG offers a cleaner and energy-efficient alternative to coal for electricity generation
- LNG supports the integration of intermittent renewable electricity generation into energy systems
- LNG fuels clean growth in industry
- LNG improves air quality and reduces emissions from commercial and residential buildings
- LNG enables clean mobility
- LNG facilitates the international trade and use of natural gas
- LNG can improve energy security and mitigate the volatility of energy demand, including for the power generation mix.